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 Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar, 2nd English Edition
by E. Kautzsch
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Bibliographic information

TitleGesenius' Hebrew Grammar, 2nd English Edition
AuthorE. Kautzsch
PublisherVarda Books
Publication Date2009
SubjectBiblical Hebrew Grammar
Pages637


Description 

Interactive edition of one of the most important Biblical Hebrew books of grammar. This electronic edition of the 2nd edition published originally by Oxford University Press in 1910, has been scanned, OCR-d, and proofread numerous times.
 
In addition, tens of thousands of bookmarks and links have been added to create a sophisticated navigation to enable the maximum easy of use:
  • Table of Contents' has been linked to respective pages, often down to a paragraph level
  • Bookmarks have been created to the same passages
  • All entries in Subject Index, Index of Hebrew Words, and Index of Passages have been linked to their relevant paragraphs
  • All internal references have been found and linked to proper paragraphs and/or pages
  • All Biblical references have been located and linked to interactive editions of Tanakh
 




About the Author 

E. Kautzsch ---





Contents 

New Page 2

ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS viii

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS χ

TABLE OF EARLY SEMITIC ALPHABETS SILOAM INSCRIPTION

INTRODUCTION

§ 1. The Semitic Languages in General 1

§ 2. Sketch of the History of the Hebrew Language 8

§ 3. Grammatical Treatment of the Hebrew Language 17

§ 4. Division and Arrangement of the Grammar 22

FIRST PART

ELEMENTARY PRINCIPLES, OR THE SOUNDS AND CHARACTERS

CHAPTER I. THE INDIVIDUAL SOUNDS AND CHARACTERS

$ 5. The Consonants: their Forms and Names 24

§ 6. Pronunciation and Division of Consonants 31

§ 7. The Vowels in General, Vowel Letters and Vowel Signs 35

§ 8. The Vowel Signs in particular 39

§ 9. Character of the several Vowels 45

§ 10. The Half Vowels and the Syllable Divider (Sewa) 51

§ 11. Other Signs which affect the Reading 54

§ 12. Dages in general, and Dages forte in particular 55

§ 13. Dages lene 56

§ 14. Mappiq and Raphe 56

§ 15. The Accents 57

§ 16. Of Maqqeph and Metheg 63

§ 17. Of the Qere and Kethibh. Masora marginalis and finalis 65

CHAPTER II. PECULIARITIES AND CHANGES OF LETTERS: THE SYLLABLE AND THE TONE

§ 18. In general 68

§ 19. Changes of Consonants 68

§ 20. The Strengthening (Sharpening) of Consonants 70

§ 21. The Aspiration of the Tenues 75

§ 22. Peculiarities of the Gutturals 76

§ 23. The Feebleness of the Gutturals א and 79

§ 24. Changes of the Weak Letters ו and 82

§ 25. Unchangeable Vowels 84

§ 26. Syllable-formation and its Influence on the Quantity of Vowels 85

§ 27. The Change of the Vowels, especially as regards Quantity 88

§ 28. The Rise of New Vowels and Syllables 92

§ 29. The Tone, its Changes, and the Pause 94

SECOND PART

ETYMOLOGY, OR THE PARTS OF SPEECH

§ 30. Stems and Roots ; Biliteral, Triliteral, and Quadriliteral 99

§ 31. Grammatical Structure 103

CHAPTER I. THE PRONOUN

§ 32. The Personal Pronoun. The Separate Pronoun 105

§ 33. Pronominal Suffixes 108

§ 34. The Demonstrative Pronoun 109

§ 35. The Article 110

§ 36. The Relative Pronoun 112

§ 37. The Interrogative and Indefinite Pronouns 113

CHAPTER II. THE VERB

§ 38. General View 114

§ 39. Ground-form and Derived Stems 114

§ 40. Tenses. Moods. Flexion 117

§ 41. Variations from the Ordinary Form of the Strong Verb 118

I. The Strong Verb.

§ 42. In general 118

A. The Pure Stem, or Qal.

§ 43. Its Form and Meaning 118

§ 44. Flexion of the Perfect of Qal 119

§ 45. The Infinitive 122

§ 46. The Imperative 124

§ 47. The Imperfect and its Inflexion 125

§ 48. Shortening and Lengthening of the Imperfect and Imperative. The Jussive and Cohortative 129

§ 49. The Perfect and Imperfect with Wäw Consecutive 132

§ 50. The Participle 136

Β. Verba Derivativa, or Derived Conjugations.

§51. Niph'al 137

§ 52. Pi'el and Pu'al 139

§ 53. Hiph'il and Hopli'al 144

§ 54. Hithpael 149

§ 55. Less Common Conjugations 151

§56. Quadriliterals 153

C. Strong Verb with Pronominal Suffixes.

§ 57. In general 154

§ 58. The Pronominal Suffixes of the Verb 155

§ 59. The Perfect with Pronominal Suffixes . . . . .158

§ 60. Imperfect with Pronominal Suffixes 160

§ 61. Infinitive, Imperative and Participle with Pronominal Suffixes 162

Verbs with Gutturals.

§ 62. In general 164

§ 63. Verbs First Guttural 165

§ 64. Verbs Middle Guttural 169

§ 65. Verbs Third Guttural 171

ΙI. The Weak Verb.

§ 66. Verbs Primae Radicalis Nun 173

§ 67. Verbs ע״ע 175

The Weakest Verbs (Verba Quiescentia).

§ 68. Verbs פ״א 184

§ 69. Verbs פ״י . First Class, or Verbs originally פ״ו 186

§ 70. Verbs פ / / י . Second Class, or Verbs properly 192

§ 71. Verbs פ״י . Third Class, or Verbs with Yödh assimilated 193

§ 72. Verbs V׳V 194

§ 73. Verbs middle i (vulgo ע״י ) 202

§ 74. Verbs ל״א 205

§ 75. Verbs ל״ה 207

§ 76. Verbs Doubly Weak 217

§ 77. Relation of the Weak Verbs to one another 219

§ 78. Verba Defectiva 219

CHAPTER III. THE NOUN

§ 79. General View 221

§ 80. The Indication of Gender in Nouns 222

§ 81. Derivation of Nouns 225

§ 82. Primitive Nouns 225

§ 83. Verbal Nouns in General 226

§ 84a. Nouns derived from the Simple Stem 227

§ 84b. Formation of Nouns from the Intensive Stem 233

§ 85. Nouns with Preformatives and Afformatives 235

§ 86. Denominative Nouns 239

§ 87. Of the Plural 241

§ 88. Of the Dual 244

§ 89. The Genitive and the Construct State 247

§ 90. Real and supposed Remains of Early Case-endings 248

§ 91. The Noun with Pronominal Suffixes 254

§ 92. Vowel Changes in the Noun 260

§ 93. Paradigms of Masculine Nouns 262

§ 94. Formation of Feminine Nouns 275

§ 95. Paradigms of Feminine Nouns 276

§ 96. Nouns of Peculiar Formation 281

§ 97. Numerals, (a) Cardinal Numbers 286

§ 98. Numerals, (b) Ordinal Numbers 292

CHAPTER IV. THE PARTICLES

§ 99. General View 293

§ 100. Adverbs 294

§ 101. Prepositions 297

§ 102. Prefixed Prepositions 298

§ 103. Prepositions with Pronominal Suffixes and in the Plural Form 300

§ 104. Conjunctions 305

§ 105. Interjections 307

THIRD PART

SYNTAX

CHAPTER I. THE PARTS OF SPEECH

I. Syntax of the Verb.

A, Use of the Tenses and Moods.

§ 106. Use of the Perfect 309

§ 107. Use of the Imperfect 313

§ 108. Use of the Cohortative 319

§ 109. Use of the Jussive 321

§ 110 ׳ .The Imperative 324

§111. The Imperfect with Waw Consecutive 326

§ 112. The Perfect with Wäw Consecutive 330

Β. The Infinitire and Participle.

§113. The Infinitive Absolute 339

§ 114. The Infinitive Construct 347

§ 115. Construction of the Infinitive Construct with Subject and Object 352

§ 116. The Participles 355

C. The Government of the Verb.

§117. The Direct Subordination of the Noun to the Verb as Accusative of the Object. The Double Accusative 362

§ 118. The Looser Subordination of the Accusative to the Verb 372

§ 119. The Subordination of Nouns to the Verb by means of Prepositions 377

§ 120. Verbal Ideas under the Government of a Verb. Co-ordination of Complementary Verbal Ideas 385

§ 121. Construction of Passive Verbs 387

II. Syntax of the Noun.

§ 122. Indication of the Gender of the Noun 389

§ 123. The Representation of Plural Ideas by means of Collectives, and by the Repetition of Words 394

§ 124. The Various Uses of the Plural-Form 396

§ 125. Determination of Nouns in general. Determination of Proper Names 401

§ 126. Determination by means of the Article 404

§ 127. The Noun determined by a following Determinate Genitive . 410

§ 128. The Indication of the Genitive Relation by means of the Construct State 414

§ 129. Expression of the Genitive by Circumlocution 419

§ 130. Wider Use of the Construct State 421

§ 131. Apposition 423

§ 132. Connexion of the Substantive with the Adjective . . .427

§ 133. The Comparison of Adjectives. (Periphrastic expression of the Comparative and Superlative) 429

§ 134. Syntax of the Numerals 432

III. Syntax of the Pronoun.

§ 135. The Personal Pronoun 437

§ 136. The Demonstrative Pronoun 442

§ 137. The Interrogative Pronoun 443

§ 138. The Relative Pronoun 444

§ 139. Expression of Pronominal Ideas by means of Substantives 447

CHAPTER II. THE SENTENCE

I. The Sentence in General.

§ 140. Noun-clauses, Verbal-clauses, and the Compound Sentence 450

§ 141. The Noun-clause 451

§ 142. The Verbal-clause 455

§ 143. The Compound Sentence 457

§ 144. Peculiarities in the Representation of the Subject (especially in the Verbal-clause) 459

§ 145. Agreement between the Members of a Sentence, especially between Subject and Predicate, in respect of Gender and Number 462

§ 146. Construction of Compound Subjects 467

§ 147. Incomplete Sentences 469

II. Special Kinds of Sentences.

§ 148. Exclamations 471

§ 149. Sentences which express an Oath or Asseveration 471

§ 150. Interrogative Sentences 473

§ 151. Desiderative Sentences 476

§ 152. Negative Sentences 478

§ 153. Restrictive and Intensive Clauses 483

§ 154. Sentences connected by Wäw 484

§ 155. Relative Clauses 485

§ 156. Circumstantial Clauses 489

§ 157. Object-clauses (Oratio Obliqua) 491

§ 158. Causal Clauses 492

§ 159. Conditional Sentences 493

§ 160. Concessive Clauses 498

§ 161. Comparative Clauses 499

§ 162. Disjunctive Sentences 500

§ 163. Adversative and Exceptive Clauses 500

§ 164. Temporal Clauses 501

§ 165. Final Clauses 503

§ 166. Consecutive Clauses 504

§ 167. Aposiopesis, Anacoluthon, Involved Series of Sentences 505

PARADIGMS 507

INDEX OF SUBJECTS 533

INDEX OF HEBREW WORDS 544

INDEX OF PASSAGES 565




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