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PublishersRow > eBookShuk > Books > Art > Books


eBook ANCIENT PLACE NAMES IN THE HOLY LAND
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ANCIENT PLACE NAMES IN THE HOLY LAND

Author:  Elitzur Yoel
Publisher:  Varda Books
Published:  2009
Language:  English
Pages:   472


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About the Book

...

About the Book

About the Author

Elitzur Yoel ---



 

Contents

New Page 1

Preface xi

Part One: Introduction

I. Preservation of toponyms in the Holy Land as a basis for studying its past 1

II. The set of toponyms as a linguistic corpus 1

III. Linguistic analysis of metamorphoses of names; previous attempts 4

IV. Evaluation of Kampffmeyer's study 5

V. The danger of using toponyms for historical research without linguistic discipline 8

VI. Guidelines for linguistic investigation of changes in toponyms 11

VII. What are 'almost positive' identifications? 12

VIII. Mode of operation 14

IX. A list of the 177 toponyms of the full corpus 15

X. A few technicalities 18

Part Two: The Sixty Entries

1. Καισαρεία. ( קיסרי(ך , [qesariyye] 23

2. ναλαιστίνη. פלסטיני/פלשת/פלשתים . •=...u ׳...ii. [falastln] 28

3. Νεαπολις. ניפולין . ^It. [nables] 32

4. Άϊλα. אילת .

5. Βηθαγλά. בית חגלה . [hagla] 37

6. Άροήρ. ערוער . ['ara'er] 41

7. Αραδ. ערד . ['arad] 47

8. Μαλααθα. מלחתא *. [milh] 50

9. Άκραβαττινη. עקרבת . ['aqraba] 54

10. Άρβηλά. ['irbid] 57

11. νέλλα. פחל . jki. [fahel] 60

12.Τ ιβεριάς. טבריה . Z^L. [tabariyya] / [tabariyye] 64

13. νανεάς. פניים . ^UL. [banyas] 71

14. Άραβα. ערב . ['arrabe] 75

15. Safforine /Σ επφωρις.( ציפורי(ם/ך ^jjil^. [saffurye] 79

16. Ά μ μ ά ν . ע מ ו ן a m m a n ] 88

17. Ραγαβα/Έργά[β]. רגב . [rageb] 93

18. Βετοαννάβ(α). ['innabe] 96

18a. LjJ» c^>. [bet nuba] 96

19. Άσδώδ. אשדוד , ['esdud] 103

20. Άκκαρών. עקרון .['aqer] 119

21. Άσκαλών. ג 0 .אשקלון &-£. ['asqalan] 121

22. Άφεκά. אפק . [fiq] 124

23. Άμμαθοΰς. חמתן - עמתו . ['ammata] 127

24. Έμμαθά. חמת גדר . ['el־hamme] 131

25. Μαληδομνεΐ. מעלה אךמים . [tal'at ed-damm] 132

26. Βηίθανίν - Βηθενίμ. בית־ענות . [bet 'enun] 134

27. Όδολλάμ - Άδολάμ. עדלם .['id el-miyye] 137

28. Άδιθά. חדיד . [hadite] 139

29. Άνάβ. ענב [anab] 141

30. Άναία - Άνεά. ענים . [gwen] or [gwene] 143

31. Έσθεμά. אשתמה - אשתמוע . [samu'] 149

32. Άταρούθ. Atarus. ['attara] or ['atara] 152

33. Άσήρ. [tyasir] 156

34. Άταρώθ. (? עטרות (עטרות אדר . ['atara] or ['attara] 157

35. Άναθώθ. ענתות . ['anata] 159

36. Ξά[λ]ους. כסלת תבר - *כסלות . [('i)ksal] 160

37. Άκχώ. עכו . ['akka] 163

38. "Εκδιππα. אכזיב , ['iz-zlb] 167

39. Άλοΰς. אילון . [yalo] 170

40. "Αρουεί[ρ]'. ['arura] 171

41. ''Αβελ. 'Άβίλα. J,1. ['abil] 173

42. Άενδώρ. Ήνδώρ. עין דור . ['endor] / ['indur] 174

43. Αίγαλλείμ. ( אגלים ?). [galame] 177

44. [Σ]αλείμ - [Σαλουμίας]. שלם *? [seh salem] 180

45. Βαιθήλ - Βεθήλ. בית־אל . [betin] 181

46. Βηθλεέμ. בית לחם . a ״ . [bet lahem] 184

47. Βαταναία.1> . בשן ή11ι. 186

48. Γηβά. ^ 1 . [(al-)gib] 192

49. Δαμασκός. דמשק . jli^j 193

50. Δάν. דן . [tall el-qadi],' [nahr al-liddan] 201

51. Δαννεά. [danne] 210

52. Δωθαείμ. דתן/דתינה . [dotan]/[dotan]/[dota]/[dota] 211

53. Δηβοΰς - [Δαιβών] - Δίβων. דיבן . [diban]/[d1ban] 215

54. Δαβαριθα (Δαβειρά?). דברת . [dab(b)urye] 222

54a. תבור . [dabura]? 222

55. Δουμά. [dome]/[dume] 231

56. Δαιδάν. דדן . [dana] 239

57. Εσεβων - Έσβοΰς. חשבון , [hesban] 245

58. Άδρά, Άδραά. אדרעי . [der'a] 251

59. Έλεάλη. אלעלה . ['el'al] / ['el'ala] 263

60. Έφραΐμ. עפרץ/עפרה . ['afra]/[at-tay(yi)be] 268

Part Three: Linguistic Summary

I. Comments on Spelling

1. In the Bible 291

2. In Ancient Hebrew and Northwest Semitic inscriptions 292

3. In Greek and Latin sources 292

4. In Medieval Arabic sources 293

5. Reports by modern scholars 293

II. Phonology

Consonants 294

1. Ancient Semitic sounds, now generally lost 294

2. Preservation of gutturals 296

3. Hard and soft pronunciation ( 2 9 9 ( בג״ד כפ״ת

4. Semitic cognates of Greek x: π τ 301

5. Preservation of emphasis in Arab speech 303

6. Generally ש > /s/; in Galilee (and Lebanon) ש > /s/ 303

7. ש> /s/ 304

8. Gemination of consonants 305

9. Assimilation in quality of consonants 308

10. Consonantal alternation 309

Vowels 310

11. The 'Canaanite Shift' 310

12. ϊ 311

13. a 311

14. u 312

15.holem 313

16. holem > e in Moab and the coastal towns? 314

17. Added /n/ or /m/ at end of word after long vowel 314

18. Ancient short vowel in pretonic open syllable 316

19. Qames and patah 316

20. Sere 317

21. Short i; 'defective' hireq and segol 318

22. Short u 319

23. Semi-vowels 319

24. Sewa quiescent 321

25. Differences of vowel length 322

26. Diphthongs 323

27. Vowel assimilation 325

28. Attenuation 325

29. Omission of final vowel in a Greek name 326

30. Raising of vowel before ta marbuta in Arabic ('final imala') 326

Accentuation 327

31. Accentuation in place names in Arab speech 327

32. Difficulty of drawing conclusions from present-day pronunciation as to accentuation in the past 328

33. Addition of ך/־ם ־ at the end of a word after a vowel may also occur when the accent is on the penult 328

III. Morphology 329

1. Patterns of nouns of Semitic origin in the Corpus 329

2. Vestiges of Gt 331

3. The 'Segolates' 331

4. qitil > qitl > qatl 332

5. Alternating of thematic vowel in segolate forms 332

6. qital > קטל (generally in Hebrew) / קטל (sometimes) / קטל (similar to Aramaic) 333

7. qatil > קטל > qatil (majority) / qatil (minority) 333

8. Historical alternation of noun patterns 333

9. First part of a name understood as prefix and dropped suffixes of noun patterns 333

10. Suffix -at; source and reason for preservation in toponyms 333

11. Suffix -i 334

12. Suffix -it 334

13. Suffix -aym/n not as a dual ending: A typical addition to toponyms 335

14. Alternation and omission of suffixes 336

15. Alternations between Hebrew/Aramaic and Greek suffixes 337

16. Greek -ους suffix reflecting /-on/ 337

17. Added /a/ at end of names in Greek and Latin sources in the

Roman-Byzantine Era 338

18. Non-Greek sources render -os/־us instead of ־as/-is in an originally Greek name - standardization? 339

19. Adaptation of pre-Arabic suffix to Arabic 339

20. Back-formation 340

21. Βαιτο־/Βετο-, Βηρο- (=־ באר־,בית ) in 2nd-6th centuries CE 340

22. Final 'imala: ta' marbuta pronounced today [e] or [i] 340

23. Names preserved in Arabic as diminutive 341

IV. Definite Article and Syntax 342

1. Determination and the definite article 342

2. Special phenomena pertaining to the definite article 343

3. Names consisting of two words 344

4. בית־ as an integral part of the name: sometimes a free variant 346

5. בני־ as part of the name in early periods dropped later (for historical reasons?) 347

V. Etymology and Semantics 347

1. Interpretations of names and lexicological remarks 347

2. Etiological homilies and folk etymology 350

3. Internal changes in the name inspired by changed understanding of its elements 352

4. Translation and adaptation of names from one language to another 352

5. A Hebrew caique to a Greek form 354

6. Pedantic forms in literary Arabic sources 355

7. Influence of landscape on development of the name 355

8. Name replaced by a euphemism 355

9. Common noun derived from a place name 356

VI. Historical Matters, Transmission of Hebrew, Confluence of Languages 357

General 357

1. Confluence of languages 357

2. 'Wandering' word from the 3rd mill. BCE? 358

3. Name preserved for millennia by nomads, despite mostly ruined state of site 358

4. Name preserved in two parallel versions 358

5. Name influenced by a generally known name 359

6. Regional differences 360

7. Standard and substandard 360

The Bible and the biblical period 361

8. Names in the Bible 361

9. Early vs. late books of the Bible 362

10. Ammonite? 363

11. The coastal cities in Greek 363

12. Ancient Assyrian source reflecting local Hebrew pronunciation 364

Roman-Byzantine Period 364

13. Certain people and their reports of place-names 364

14. The Targums 365

15. Mishnah, Talmuds, Midrash and their linguistic traditions 366

16. Samaritans 367

Arab Period and Middle Ages 367

17. Adaptation of names to Arabic; the question of 'Arab mouth' and 'Syrian mouth' 367

18. Arabic material of Christian source from the first centuries A.H. 369

19. Colloquial Arabic preserves the original name better than does Literary Arabic 369

20. Preservation of a name in a nearby wali 369

Modern Era 369

21. Change of name in Transjordan on eve of and during 19th century 369

22. European travelers err in hearing and recording Arabic sounds 369

23. Scholars lend exaggerated weight to an exceptional report 370

24. Misidentification due to misreading of sources 370

25. To what extent have names changed since the Arab conquest (till today)? 370

Part Four: New Approaches and Clarifications in Historical Geography

A Brief Summary of New Discoveries and Insights in Historical Geography 372

Bibliography and Abbreviations 388

Index of Sources 411

General Index 415

Linguistic Index 420

Geographical Name Index 426

Index of Scholars and Travellers 442

Word Index 445



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