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A Grammar of Samaritan Hebrew
A Grammar of Samaritan Hebrew
by Zeev Ben-Hayyim / Varda Books

The Hebrew language comes down to us in several versions, each ethnic community having its own unique tradition of pronunciation. Even though these traditions are subject to the various vernaculars and sometimes differ markedly from each other, their common basis is evident. All, that is, but the pronunciation of the Samaritans, whose tradition stands apart from the others, unique and surprising. One who hears the Samaritan recitation of the Torah or any of their Hebrew prayers would think he is listening to some distant, foreign tongue.

Only here and there would his ear discern a Hebrew word. The Samaritan community's distinctness in matters of belief and law, its devotion to its ancestral ways, and its continual preservation of its ancient ritual practices am so well how as to require no proof. This raises the following question: does the Samaritans' tendency to adhere closely to their religious heritage apply also to their unique linguistic tradition? In other words, did the Samaritans carefully maintain their linguistic heritage, as they did their observance of tradition, preserving it from the time when they spoke Hebrew?

The author's answer -- based on a detailed analysis of all the available data -- is presented in this volume.

This English translation contains emendations and clarifications making it accessible for the non-Hebrew speaking public while remaining faithful to the original Hebrew in terms of content and conclusions.

free ebook A Grammar of Samaritan Hebrew
 
Front Matter
Front Cover
Half Title Page
Title Page
Copyright Page
Table Of Contents
PREFACE
ENGLISH PREFACE TO THE ORIGINAL HEBREW EDITION
Contents
INTRODUCTION
ALPHABET
PHONOLOGY
1.1 Consonants
1.2 Vowels
1.3 Sewa and the Auxiliary Vowels
1.4 Syllabic Structure and Stress
1.5 Sound Changes
1.5.1 Interchanges in the Vowel System
1.5.2 Diachronic Study
Verbal Forms:
Nominal Forms:
Formative Elements:
1.5.3 Changes Due to Proximity
MORPHOLOGY: 2. VERB
2.0 Preliminaries
2.1 Strong Verb
2.1.2 Hif'il
2.1.3 Pi'el
With Geminated Second Radical
With Simple Second Radical (PVel B)
2.1.4 Nif'al
With Simple Second Radical
With Geminated Second Radical
2.1.5 Hitpa'el
With Geminated Second Radical
With Simple Second Radical
2.3 Verbs I-Aleph (K»S)
2.4 Verbs I-Yod (*•»)
2.5 Verbs I-Nun (3*3)
2.6 II-Waw (and Yod) Verbs ,ry)
2.7 Geminate Verbs (jry)
2.8 Verbs III-Heh (n"V)
2.9 Tenses and Moods
2.10 Passive Voice
2.10.6 Qal Perfect
2.10.7 Qal and Hifil Imperfect
2.10.8 Hifil Perfect
2.10.9 Pi'el
2.11 Imperative
2.12-2.14 Verbal Nouns
2.12 Active Participle
2.13 Passive Participle
2.14 Infinitive
2.15 Mixture of Classes and Alternation of Stems
3. PRONOUN
3.1 Personal Pronouns
3.2 Pronominal Suffixes
Possessive Suffixes
3.3 Other Pronouns
3.3.1 Demonstratives
3.3.2 The Definite Article -n
3.3.3 Interrogative, Indefinite, and Relative Pronouns
4. NOUN
4.0 Preliminaries
4.1 Simple Noun Patterns
4.1.1 Forms with One Consonant
4.1.2 Forms with Two Consonants
4.I.2.7
4.1.3 Forms with Three Consonants
4.1.3.10 Special Instances
4.1.3.16 Special Instances
4.1.3.19 Special Instances
4.1.3.22 Special Instances
4.1.4 Forms with Four or More Consonants
A. Forms with Geminated Second Radicals and Similar Forms
4.1.4.3 Special Instances
4.1.4.8 Special Instances
B. Quadriradicals
C. Quinqueradicals
D. Compounds
4.1.5 Feminine Patterns
4.2-4.3 Compound Patterns
4.2 Prefixed Patterns
4.2.1 With -?.
4.2.2 With-'
4.2.3 With -a
4.2.4 With -n
4.3 Suffixed Patterns and Nouns with Suffixes
4.4 Ultimately-Stressed Nominal Forms
4.4.1 Masculine forms
4.4.2 Feminine Forms
4.4.6 Special Instances
4.5 Gender and Number
4.6 Construct State and Pronominal State
5. NUMERALS
5.0 Cardinal Numbers
5.1 From 1 to 10
5.2 From 11 to 20
5.3 Remaining Cardinal Numbers
5.4 Ordinal Numbers
5.5 Fractions
5.6 Multiplicatives
6. PARTICLES
A. Indeclinable Particles
?. Declinable Particles
7. SOME POINTS OF SYNTAX
7.0 General Remarks
7.1 Determination
7.2 He Locale
7.4 In the Realm of Sentence Structure
7.5 Sentence Types (Verbal/Nominal)
8. EPILOGUE
Back Matter
USER'S GUIDE TO THE INVENTORY OF FORMS
Contents of the Inventory
The Verb
The Noun
INVENTORY OF FORMS THE VERB
X. Roots of the Verbs
2. Verbs Formed from N o n - G u t t u r a l Roots
}. Verbs Formed from Guttural Roots
?. Pronominal Suffixes o n Verbs
K. Verbs Except I l l - G u t t u r a l and 7\\"b
?. Verbal Nouns
THE NOUN
?. Nouns Formed from Non-Guttural Roots
1. N o u n s Formed from Guttural Roots
The Plural Ending ät ('-ät, '-ät)
ADDENDA AND CORRIGENDA
ABBREVIATIONS AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES
Journals, Books, Series
Editions Cited
Biblical Books
Rabbinic Hebrew
Other Abbreviations
INDEX OF PASSAGES
A. Samaritan Sources
Genesis
Exodus
Leviticus
Numbers
Deuteronomy
The Samaritan Targum
Genesis
Exodus
Leviticus
Numbers
Deuteronomy
The Samaritan Arabic Version
Genesis
Exodus
Leviticus
Numbers
Deuteronomy
?. Non-•Samaritan Sources
Joshua
Judges
1 Samuel
2 Samuel
1 Kings
2 Kings
Isaiah
Jeremiah
Ezekiel
Hosea
Micah
Nahum
Zephaniah
Haggai
Zechariah
Malachi
Psalms
Proverbs
Canticles
Ruth
Lamentations
Ecclesiastes
Esther
Daniel
Nehemiah
1 Chronicles
2 Chronicles
Ben Sira
Dead Sea Scrolls
Copper Scroll
Mishna
Berakhot
Kil'ayim
Terumot
Ma'aser Sheni
Shabbat
Sukka
Besa
Rosh Ha-Shanah
Yevamot
Nedarim
Qiddushin
Makkot
'Avoda Zara
Avot
Kelim
Miqwa'oth
Yadayim
Tosefta
Berakhot
Ma'aser Sheni
Bikkurim
Hagiga
Bava Qamma
Bava Batra
Kelim
Palestinian Talmud (Jerusalem Talmud)
Berakhot
Peah
Kil'ayim
Ma'asrot
Shabbat
Yevamot
Nedarim
Sanhedrin
Nidda
Babylonian Talmud
Shabbat
Sanhedrin
Shavu'ot
Avoda Zara
Hullin
Nidda
Targum Onqelos
Genesis
Leviticus
Palestinian Targum
Genesis
Numbers
Targum to Isaiah
Septuagint
Genesis
Deuteronomy
2 Samuel
2 Kings
Jeremiah
Ezekiel
Hexapla
Psalms
Inscriptions
Sefire
Eshmun'azar of Sidon
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